Queensland fertility rate hits low as women defer pregnancy

Written by Vanessa Marsh, The Sunday Mail (Qld)

QUEENSLAND’s plummeting fertility rate has hit a 13-year low, leading to fears we’re headed for an underpopulation-induced economic downturn if the decline isn’t addressed.

The end of the mining boom and high unemployment rates created economic uncertainty which, combined with the scrapping of the baby bonus and a new generation of career women delaying families, has resulted in a perfect storm.

Queensland’s fertility is at 1.822, the fifth lowest in history, and well below the desired replacement rate of 2.1 which keeps the population at a steady rate and stops the workforce and taxpayer base reducing and causing the costly dilemma of an ageing population.

The total fertility rate is calculated on the number of children that would be born to a woman over her lifetime.

Demographer and social researcher Bernard Salt said women were now pursuing higher education and corporate careers more than ever before which has seen birthrates for women in their 20s drop to a record low while women starting families in their 30s has doubled on the rate four decades earlier in 1976.

“The higher the level of female participation in the workforce, the lower the fertility rate will be,” he said.

“More women in Queensland are now going to uni and they tend to get a return on their investment by remaining in the workforce longer and having fewer children.”

The Government introduced the baby bonus in 2002 after the national fertility rate dropped to a record low of 1.7 in 2001.

It helped push Queensland’s birthrate to a 33-year high in 2009 with a 2.174 fertility rate which has been declining ever since, spurred on by the end of the mining boom in 2011 and unemployment rates above the national average.

The bonus was scrapped in 2014 and fertility rates the year after dropped to 1.842.

Mr Salt said people were less likely to have children when economic conditions were uncertain.

Brisbane mum Melissa Gibbons is one of the many women who delayed having a baby until her 30s, giving birth to Bastian in February at the age of 31 after establishing her career and travelling the world.

Mrs Gibbons, an aviation civil engineer, said she and her partner Luke waited until they were financially stable before starting a family.

“We’re really glad that we took the time to get ourselves set up and glad we did a lot of travelling,” she said.

“A lot of my friends have waited until that age to have children and … it’s becoming more common.”

It’s OK to take your time

THEY say first comes love, then marriage and finally a baby. But for new mum Anita Cullum a good education, career success and financial stability came before any of that.

Mrs Cullum is part of a new generation of Queensland women who are waiting until their 30s to start a family.

Mrs Cullum, 31, who works in sales and procurement for a health care IT company, gave birth to her first baby, Arthur, in April this year.

“It was really important to me to make sure that I was established in my career and in my role before I had Arthur,” she said.

“I felt like I wanted to be at a certain point where I could take some time off and not really fall behind with regards to career progression so that was one of the main drivers for waiting a little bit longer to have him.”

The Greenslopes mum, who has two degrees, said many of her friends had delayed having children in favour of establishing a career and saving money.

“My family are immigrants so, growing up, my family worked really hard to provide us with what we need, but there wasn’t really a lot extra for luxuries,” she said.

“So for me it was really important to be financially stable before having kids.

“My circle of friends are in a similar position, they want to give their kids the best opportunity they can and part of it is being financially secure.”

Original article here.

Adelaide Uni study finds folic acid supplements far into pregnancy raise childhood allergy risk

Written by Tim Williams, The Advertiser

TAKING folic acid supplements into the late stages of pregnancy could raise the risk in some children of developing allergies, Adelaide University research has found.

Folic acid is important before conception and in the first trimester to minimise risk of fetal defects and aid development of the central nervous system.

But animal testing suggests that continuing the supplement could reduce the natural protection from allergies that some babies have as a result of a common complication in about 10 per cent of pregnancies.

“Taking a folic acid supplement during the first trimester of pregnancy is important to reduce the risk of neural tube defects,” Dr Kathy Gatford, from the uni’s Robinson Research Institute, said.

“However, continued supplementation with folic acid into the later stage of pregnancy doesn’t reduce that risk, and there’s growing evidence that this may increase the risk of allergies in offspring.”

The neural tube develops into the brain and spinal cord. Australian guidelines recommend a daily supplement of folic acid, a type of vitamin B, at least one month before and three months after conception. Guidelines do not make recommendations beyond the first trimester.

Previous studies have shown that a pregnancy complication called intra-uterine growth restriction – growth restriction in the womb often resulting in low birthweight, and in the worst cases stillbirth – could have a protective affect against allergies such as asthma and food allergies. Various allergies affect up to 40 per cent of the population.

Dr Gatford’s research team has found that sheep born from growth-restricted pregnancies are less likely to be susceptible to developing allergies to egg white proteins — ascertained by injecting the allergen followed by skin prick tests — than those from normal pregnancies.

But when sheep with growth-restricted pregnancies were fed folic acid supplements late in pregnancy, their offspring lost that advantage.

“Studies in animal models like this allow us to directly investigate these effects of the environment before birth on later allergy,” Dr Gatford said.

“While the results help us to better understand the potential allergy risk in humans, more research is needed before any recommendations about the right timing of supplementation should or could be made in humans.”

The study will be published in the American Journal of Physiology.

Original article here.

Nicotine replacement in pregnancy: Safer than smoking

Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) is safer than smoking and Australian doctors can be confident about prescribing it for their pregnant patients, according to the authors of a Narrative Review published online by the Medical Journal of Australia.

“Clinicians report low levels of prescribing NRT during pregnancy, due to safety concerns and low levels of confidence in their ability to prescribe NRT,” wrote the authors, led by Dr Yael Bar-Zeev, Public Health physician and Tobacco Treatment Specialist, PhD candidate at the University of Newcastle and head of the Centre for Smoking Cessation and Prevention at Ben-Gurion University in Israel.

“In a recent survey of Australian general practitioners and obstetricians, 25% of participants stated that they never prescribe NRT during pregnancy,” Dr Bar-Zeev and co-authors Associate Professor Gillian Gould, Professor Billie Bonevski, Associate Professor Maree Gruppetta and Ling Li Lim added.

Current Australian and New Zealand guidelines recommend the use of NRT by pregnant women who have been unable to quit smoking without medication, the authors wrote. However, these guidelines, and others from around the world,deliver mixed messages by imposing caveats such as “only if women are motivated”, “only give out 2 weeks’ supply” or “under close supervision”.

In laboratory studies nicotine has been shown to cause damage to the lungs and central nervous systems of the fetus; however, “human studies … did not find any harmful effects on fetal and pregnancy outcomes compared with placebo, but the evidence is limited due to the small numbers of participants in the meta-analysis (combining all studies together)”.

Bar-Zeev and colleagues provided a practical guide for general practitioners for prescribing NRT to their pregnant patients.

“As many pregnant women reduce on their own the number of cigarettes they smoke, using measures that rely on number of cigarettes per day may be less effective,” they wrote. “We suggest using the strength of urges to smoke (SUTS) and the frequency of urges to smoke (FUTS) scales as practical guides to the decision to initiate or increase the NRT dose … If the women report experiencing strong or frequent … urges to smoke, this suggests the need for additional support.

“The most important guidance for NRT in pregnancy is to use the lowest possible dose that is effective. However, to be effective, women should … use as much as needed to deal with cravings. Physicians should encourage using oral NRT regularly throughout the day to substitute for cigarettes; for example, a woman smoking ten cigarettes a day should be instructed to use one piece of gum every 1.5 hours regularly, even if she is not experiencing a strong craving at this time.

“In addition, physicians should encourage the use of oral NRT in anticipation of cravings; if a woman knows she is going to be in a situation where the urge to smoke will be strong (eg, going out with friends who smoke), doctors should encourage the use of oral NRT 20 minutes beforehand. Physicians should proactively review … on a weekly basis and adjust dosage as needed.

“Further, women should be encouraged to use NRT for at least 12 weeks, or longer if required, in order not to relapse.”

Bar-Zeev and colleagues concluded that “nicotine may not be completely safe for the pregnant mother and fetus, but it is always safer than smoking”.

“A risk and benefit analysis needs to be done to help pregnant women (and their partners) judge whether to use a clean source of nicotine such as NRT, which might help cessation, and whether this is preferable to continuing exposure to the nicotine and other chemicals present in combustible cigarettes.”

Original article here.

National endometriosis plan delivers hope for women with debilitating pain

Written by Justin Huntsdale

A long-term advocate for endometriosis awareness has lauded a Federal Government national plan for the disease as a game-changing move that validates a painful condition that affects one in 10 women.

Anna Chaplin has been trying to get people to understand endometriosis for years, but she said it was a topic people did not want to confront, and women were suffering in silence.

The disease of the uterus can cause immense pain throughout the body, debilitating period pain, and a range of psychological and social side effects.

“Just today I had an important holiday event I was going to in Sydney and I can’t go because I can’t drive in a car for a few hours due to the pain,” she said.

It is a condition that brings her busy life to a grinding halt on a regular basis, but she now hopes people will get a better understanding of what her and thousands of women are going through.

Federal Government announces action

This week in Canberra, Health Minister Greg Hunt, flanked by endometriosis awareness campaigners, formally apologised to women with endometriosis for not helping sooner, and announced a national plan to address the condition.

The plan includes a research grant of $160,000 for the National Health and Medical Research Council, as well as a campaign for education and awareness.

There will also be a targeted call for endometriosis research under the Medical Research Future Fund.

While it may not be news of a cure, Ms Chaplin said the fact it had been put on the agenda by the Federal Government was enough to make her “emotional and overwhelmed”.

“I can’t believe it’s finally happening because for so long it’s been endometri-what?” she said.

“No one’s known what we’re talking about, but over on our end we’re talking about one in 10 women who are affected.

“It should be nationally recognised and finally more voices are being heard and something is happening.”

Advocacy group wants workplace education

At the announcement at Parliament House, Endometriosis Australia director Donna Ciccia called for workplaces to educate employees about endometriosis.

She is aware of one workplace that has helped support a worker with endometriosis, and she wants to see it become the norm.

“This has also led to an internal acceptance for more flexibility in the workplace for those affected,” she said.

“As recently as last week, [an employee] had to take time off because of an endometriosis attack.

“The response from her male supervisor was ‘We’ve got you covered’, and that didn’t happen before.”

Validation proves it’s not ‘all in the head’

Ms Chaplin spent five years wondering what was wrong with her.

“I’d been told everything from it being a digestive issue to [being caused by] gluten to it’s all in my head and I’m neurotic,” she said.

“If it happened to me, it happened to millions of other women.

“People suffer in silence and they think it’s normal, but no one deserves to be in life-altering pain.”

Ms Chaplin said greater awareness would hopefully lead to earlier diagnosis.

According to Mr Hunt, at the moment endometriosis is a condition that takes about nine years to diagnose.

“This condition should have been better acknowledged and acted upon long ago, but today we are taking action so the struggle that women face will no longer be silent or their battles private,” he said.

Ms Chaplin said Mr Hunt’s apology for not acting sooner was a welcome recognition for the frustration people with endometriosis had felt, along with the pain.

“I appreciate an apology because it validates our experiences,” she said.

“I think of the bad experiences of feeling helpless and going to a doctor and not getting answers. At least now we’re being told now it’s not our fault.”

Original article here.

Why You Shouldn’t Feel Guilty After a Miscarriage

Written by Korin Miller

Experts want you to know that it’s not your fault.

Last week, former Olympic gymnast Shawn Johnson shared the heartbreaking news that she had a miscarriage just a few days after discovering that she was pregnant. Now, she’s speaking out about the emotional aftermath of her loss in a follow-up YouTube video simply titled, “After the Miscarriage”.

In the video, Johnson says she initially felt, on some level, like she could have done something to prevent her loss. “The day I was told we were miscarrying, I felt guilty. I felt sad,” she says in the 16-minute video. Johnson says she even told her husband, Andrew East, “I’m sorry I lost your baby.”

“I felt like it was something that I did,” she continues. “I didn’t take care of the baby well enough, or I was stressed out too much, or I didn’t take the right prenatal vitamins.”

Unfortunately, guilt is a common and devastating reaction that many people experience after miscarriage.

“Guilt is the most common and most difficult thing for women who have gone through miscarriages,” Tamar Gur, M.D., Ph.D., a women’s health expert and reproductive psychiatrist at The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, tells SELF. “There’s just this component of, ‘I failed the baby in some way, so how could I not be responsible?'”

But those feelings, while totally understandable, are usually misplaced, Jessica Shepherd, M.D., an assistant professor of clinical obstetrics and gynecology and Director of Minimally Invasive Gynecology at The University of Illinois College of Medicine at Chicago, tells SELF. “We spend a lot of time with women [to make sure they] understand that it’s not their fault,” she says.

Miscarriages are far more common than many realize and, in most cases, they aren’t preventable.

According to statistics from the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) and the American Pregnancy Association, somewhere between 10 and 25 percent of all pregnancies end in miscarriage.

About half of all miscarriages can be traced back to chromosomal abnormalities, ACOG explains. Sperm and eggs each have 23 chromosomes and, during fertilization, those chromosomes get matched up. But, if they get matched in a weird way or at least one set is off, the fertilized egg will end up with an abnormal amount of chromosomes. That means that, in many cases, development won’t be able to move forward and the pregnancy will be lost.

“The body does have a way of recognizing when something may not be compatible with life or the pregnancy may not be successful,” Dr. Shepherd says. Meaning, if someone miscarries, it’s unlikely that their baby would have survived outside the womb if it even made it to that point.

There are a few other factors that can contribute to miscarriages that aren’t due to chromosomal issues, G. Thomas Ruiz, M.D., an ob/gyn at Orange Coast Memorial Medical Center in Fountain Valley, Calif., tells SELF. This includes: poor implantation of the fertilized egg on the uterine lining, a uterine abnormality that makes it more difficult for implantation to happen, and hormonal issues.

When it comes to taking prenatal vitamins, they’re definitely important, but forgetting to take them on any given day or two will not cause a woman to miscarry, Dr. Shepherd says. Additionally, ACOG says that exercising, working, using birth control pills, drinking a moderate amount of caffeine, or having sex will not cause a miscarriage.

“In the majority of cases, it really is something that just happens,” Dr. Ruiz says. Even doctors can’t do much to help before a pregnancy gets to the second trimester, he adds. And even then, there’s no guarantee that they can stop a miscarriage.

While it’s important to realize that you didn’t do anything wrong, you also shouldn’t judge yourself for feeling what you’re feeling after such a difficult experience.

Even though these feelings of guilt are likely misplaced, it’s important to let yourself grieve this loss. “Grief is a normal emotional feeling after having a miscarriage,” Dr. Shepherd says. If you suffer a miscarriage, you should cut yourself some seriously slack and allow yourself to mourn your loss—and it is a loss, even if you suffer a miscarriage early in your pregnancy, Dr. Gur says. “Women know the statistics but finding out about a pregnancy is just an instant connection,” she says. “When it’s lost, it’s just devastating.”

Unfortunately, it’s not uncommon for those feelings to become more serious—research suggeststhat about 40 percent of women develop post-traumatic stress disorder following pregnancy loss. So if you find that your feelings are getting worse with time, you have a lack of desire to do anything, or you’re struggling to get out of bed, Dr. Gur says it’s time to talk to a professional.

No matter the guilt you may feel, it wasn’t your fault. “These things happen for known and unknown reasons,” Dr. Gur continues, “and in my clinical practice I have yet to meet someone who intentionally or unintentionally caused a miscarriage.”

View original article – https://www.self.com/story/why-you-shouldnt-feel-guilty-after-a-miscarriage

Skinny women risk early menopause

Researchers say women who are underweight in early or mid-adulthood may be at increased risk of early menopause.

Being a skinny teenager increases a woman’s risk of having an early menopause, new research suggests.

The same association was found for women who are underweight in their mid-30s.

In addition, underweight women who lost nine kilograms or more on at least three occasions between the ages of 18 and 30 doubled their chances of ending reproductive life prematurely, the study found.

Early menopause is defined as naturally ceasing to have periods before the age of 45.

Researchers analysed data from 78,759 pre-menopausal women aged 25 to 42 who joined the US Nurses’ Health Study II in 1989. The study was one of a series of major investigations into the causes of chronic disease in women.

Lead scientist Dr Kathleen Szegda, from the University of Massachusetts, said: “Our findings suggest that women who are underweight in early or mid-adulthood may be at increased risk for early menopause.

“Up to 10 per cent of women experience early menopause and it is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease, and other health conditions such as cognitive decline, osteoporosis and premature death, so these findings have important implications for women and their doctors.

“Underweight women may want to consider discussing the potential implications of these findings with their doctors.”

Being underweight was defined as having a Body Mass Index (BMI) of less than 18.5.

The findings appear in the latest issue of the journal Human Reproduction.

View original article – http://www.sbs.com.au/news/article/2017/10/26/skinny-women-risk-early-menopause